We don’t recommend air purifiers which use ozone to clean the air. Ozone can irritate the lungs and cause chest pains, coughing, and shortness of breath, even in people who don’t suffer from asthma and lung problems. Children and older adults are more sensitive to ozone.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “At concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone has little effect in removing most indoor air contaminants.” Even low levels can be harmful, and repeated exposure can permanently scar lung tissue.
Many air purifiers sold these days no longer use ozone, but there are air purifiers which use ion generators to clean the air, and they emit low levels of ozone.
Air ionizers, or negative ion generators, discharge electrons which form negative ions in the air. These negative ions then attach to small particles like smoke, dust and pollen, clumping them into larger particles which can be more easily filtered by the air purifier. However, these larger particles can also simply descend to the ground, or attach themselves to positively charged surfaces in the room.
The problem with negative ion generators is that they typically produce a low level of ozone. Now these may be levels low enough that they won’t affect your health, but we’re not keen to take the risk. If you’d still like to get an air purifier with a negative ion generator, take a look at the air purifier’s ozone output and compare it to the recommended levels.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a maximum eight-hour average outdoor concentration of 0.08ppm of ozone, while the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) both recommend an upper limit of 0.10ppm, not to be exceeded for more than eight hours (OSHA) or at any time (NIOSH) (source: Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of Effectiveness and Health Consequences, PDF link).
The gold standard for air purifiers is mechanical filtration, which uses a fan to force air through a HEPA filter to trap particulars, while letting the air flow back out. There are other kinds of air purifiers, but mechanical filtration is proven and cost effective.
However, one by-product of mechanical filtration is noise. If you’re going to be running the air purifier in your bedroom, you won’t want one that sounds like a vacuum cleaner.
So how do you figure out how loud an air purifier is? While you can listen to it in the store, loudness is relative — what sounds quiet in a crowded mall can sound loud in a quiet bedroom. For a more objective test, check the air purifier’s rated noise levels, measured in decibels (dB or dBA). It’s complicated, but to keep it simple for this post, dB and dBA are roughly equal measurements.
For some perspective, Hearing Aid Know has a list of common noises and their decibel levels. Vacuum cleaners are rated at 80dB, normal conversation at 60dB, and a refrigerator humming at 40dB. The Engineering Toolbox recommends that living rooms have a maximum noise level of 50dBA, and bedrooms a maximum noise level of 30dBA.
You should also know that decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale, which means that the difference between values increase as the values get larger. For example, the difference between 20dB and 10dB is not twice, but four times as loud.
HEPA filters clog up over time with the particles they trap, and you’ll need to replace them every once in a while. It does add up to the cost, but that’s the price of running an air purifier.
You don’t want to buy an air purifier, only to have problems finding replacement filters down the road. That’s the reason we’d recommend you buy an air purifier from a known brand, that will likely be around for the long-term and keep selling its filters down the road.
To keep things simple, we’ve listed only the absolute essentials for an air purifier to deal with the haze. To sum up, an effective air purifier must:
Other filters are nice-to-haves in comparison. For example, carbon air filters can absorb smoke, odors, chemicals and gas, while ultraviolet light filters can kill bacteria. If you don’t need these features and just want to deal with the harmful PM2.5 particles in the haze, you can skip them.
Lastly, air purifiers aren’t miracle machines. If you run it in a room with open doors and windows, it won’t be able to keep up with the amount of air that’s constantly flowing in and out.
Air-conditioners don’t draw air in from the outside, so the air purifier will have a better chance of cleaning the air inside an air-conditioned room.
Place the air purifier in a spot where it has good ventilation, which helps make its job easier. Don’t stuff it into a corner where its fans will be blocked and air can’t escape.
You only need to run the air purifier when you’re in the room, or just before you’re going to use the room. It doesn’t need to be switched on 24/7 when nobody is around.
The air purifier needs some time to do its job, so you can run it half an hour to an hour ahead of time before you use the room, like in the bedroom before you go to sleep.
The world of air purifiers can get complicated and even costly, but as long as you get your basics right, you should do fine. We don’t do air purifier reviews at HardwareZone (yet), so if you want to dig deeper into air purifier research, here are the more helpful sites that we’ve found.
Not to forget, we've plenty of concerned HardwareZone members who've been discussing this topic at length with regards to the cause and effect, solutions, personal reviews of air purifiers, haze masks and much more. So do check out these informative discussion threads below:-